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Ancient Greece
AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY
Marshall Cavendish
Reference
New York
   Marshall Cavendish
Copyright © 2011 Marshall Cavendish Corporation
This publication represents the opinions
and views of the authors based on personal
experience, knowledge, and research.The
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guide only.The author and publisher have
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book and disclaim liability rising directly
and indirectly from the use and application
of this book.
Published by Marshall Cavendish Reference
An imprint of Marshall Cavendish Corporation
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Ancient Greece : an illustrated history.
p. cm.
Includes index.
Marshall Cavendish is a trademark of
Times Publishing Limited
ISBN 978-0-7614-9955-8 (alk. paper)
1. Greece--History--To 146 B.C. 2. Greece--Civilization--To
146 B.C.
DF215.A55 2010
938--dc22
All websites were available and accurate
when this book was sent to press.
2010002924
P
HOTOGRAPHIC
C
REDITS
Front Cover: Shutterstock:
Raimond Siebesma
(main), David H Seymour (background).
Back Cover: Shutterstock:
Raimond Siebesma
(main), David H Seymour (background).
Inside: AKG:
21, 75, 92, 103, 135, 136, 148, 149, 156,
179, Andrea Baguzzi 87, 171, Pietro Baguzzi 153, Orsi
Battaglini 178, Herve Champollion 145, 170, Peter
Connolly 19, 60, 73, 157, Gerard Degeorge 102, Electa
61, Rainer Hachenberg 48, John Hios 10b, 56, 77, 97,
113, 116, Andrea Jemolo 47,Tristan Lafrancis 49, 58,
167, Erich Lessing 7, 8, 10t, 15, 16, 20, 22, 24, 25, 33, 39,
62, 67, 68, 72, 76, 78, 83, 84, 86, 89, 98, 106, 114, 117,
118, 120, 123, 127, 139, 141, 159, 165, 168, 175, 176,
Nimatallah 44, 45b, 53, 59, 105, 112, 155, 173, Jean-
Louis Nou 38, Ullstein Bild-Agelou 142;
Ancient Art
and Architecture Collection:
B.Wilson 82;
Art
Archive:
Archaelogical Museum Eretria/Gianni Dagli
Orti 42, 45t;
Corbis:
Barney Burstein 146, Gianni Dagli
Orti 46, Hulton-Deutsch Collection 151;
Lebrecht:
37,
H. J. Shunk/Interfoto 163;
Mary Evans Picture
Library:
57, 124, 150;
Science Photo Library:
131;
Shutterstock:
70, Cornelie LEU 1, Elpis Ioaninidis 63,
Nikita Rogul 79, Scion 3,Valery Shanon 5, Olga
Shelego 140, Nikolas Strigins 12;
Still Pictures:
126;
Superstock:
Yiorgos Depollas 54;
Topham:
11, 23, 27,
51, 91, 101, 104, 137, 147, 162, 172, Alinari 32, 65, 69,
81, 95, 143, 152, 177, 183, Mike Andrews 35, Ann
Ronan Picture Library/HIP 125, 128, 130, 132, Arena
PAL 93, Art Media/HIP 133, 160, British Library/HIP
34, 36, 74, 94, 100, 111, 119, 161, Fortean 129, HIP 41,
85, 90, 134, 164, Image Works 18, 107, 144, Prisma-
Vew 121, Roger-Viollet 13, 180, 181, Charles Wallker
115;
Werner Forman:
71, 108, British Museum,
London 109.
Printed in Malaysia
14 13 12 11 10 1 2 3 4 5
M
ARSHALL
C
AVENDISH
Publisher: Paul Bernabeo
Project Editor: Brian Kinsey
Production Manager: Mike Esposito
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EFERENCE
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Managing Editor:Tim Harris
Designer: Lynne Lennon
Picture Researcher: Laila Torsun
Indexer: Ann Barrett
Design Manager: David Poole
Editorial Director: Lindsey Lowe
    CONTENTS
Foreword
4
Macedon and Alexander
the Great
154
Bronze Age Greece
6
After Alexander
166
The Minoans
14
The Greek Legacy
174
Mycenae and Troy
26
Glossary
184
The Dark Age and
Greek Expansion
40
Major Historical Figures
187
Sparta and Athens
52
Index
188
From Tyranny to
Democracy
64
Greek Religion
80
The Birth of Drama
88
The Persian Wars
96
The Age of Pericles
110
The Great
Philosophers
122
The Peloponnesian
Wa r
138
   FOREWORD
(1821), written the year before he died, the
poet Percy Bysshe Shelley declared to readers
throughout the English-speaking world that:
“We are all Greeks. Our laws, our literature, our
religion, our arts, have their root in Greece.” For
citizens of the West, Shelley’s statement is as true
now as it was then. Take, for example, the evi-
dence from our everyday language. Nouns in
common usage such as “democracy,” “tragedy,”
“odyssey,” “tyrant,” “theater,” and “poet,” as well
as the adjectives “spartan,” “stoic,” “comic,”
“olympic,” “epic,” and “platonic,” testify to the
enduring influence of the Hellenic past.
At no time in recent history have the peoples
of Europe and of Western civilization in general
been as engaged as they are today in areas of the
globe that were involved for centuries in repeat-
ed conflicts and continuous cultural exchange
with the Greeks. Scarcely a day passes in which
an event in the Near East, western Asia, or South
Asia does not make up some aspect of the daily
news cycle. Looking back to the last century, the
British invasion of Iraq during the Anglo-Iraqi
War in May 1941 marked the first time since
Alexander the Great’s siege of the island city Tyre
in 333 BCE that armed forces of any nation had
marched east from the eastern shores of the
Mediterranean Sea to the Mesopotamian city of
Babylon. That invasion occurred roughly 70
years ago. How little the world changes!
Covering the major periods of Greek histo-
ry,
Ancient Greece:An Illustrated History
brings the
past alive to a new generation of students and
gives them the background needed to interpret
current circumstances. Such background is sore-
ly needed, for the past has always served as the
prologue to the future. Beginning with a survey
of Stone Age culture from the Paleolithic era and
a study of the life of the island peoples inhabit-
ing Crete and the Cyclades, this book then
introduces its readers to the Bronze Age warrior
culture populated by the men and women who
were made immortal by the poet Homer in the
Iliad
: Agamemnon, Helen, Hector, and Achilles,
among others.When the Mycenaean hegemony
fell apart, there followed a prolonged period of
decline, from whose ruins rose a system of city-
states such as those of Sparta, Corinth, Thebes,
and Athens. These cities in turn created eco-
nomic engines, forms of art and architecture,
structures of government, techniques of diplo-
macy, methods of warfare, and systems of philos-
ophy, religion, and law that are now applied
worldwide. The successes, failures, biases, and
shortcomings of these systems remain of great
consequence to us. The warning made by the
Greek historian Herodotus to his audience in
the fifth century BCE still pertains: the divinities
who sanction prosperity will just as frequently
destroy it.
Over time, this pan-Hellenic network of
Greek-speaking city-states absorbed and was
itself absorbed by neighboring cultures. The
network became truly multicultural as it spread
westward throughout the Mediterranean region
into Sicily, portions of Italy, southern France,
and the Iberian Peninsula, southward into Africa,
4
I
n the preface to his lyric drama “Hellas”
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